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Product Warnings, Labels and Instructions

Warnings Effectiveness

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  • Lehto, M.R. and House, T. (1999). “Computer Aided Analysis Of Hazard Communication Phrases," International Conference on Computer - Aided Ergonomics and Safety, Barcelona, Spain, May 19-21, 1999.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Papastavrou, J. (1996)."Improving the Effectiveness of Warnings by Increasing the Appropriateness of Their Information Content: Some Hypotheses about Human Compliance," Safety Science, Vol. 21, pp. 175-189.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Salvendy, G. (1995)."Warnings: A Supplement not a Substitute for Other Approaches to Safety," Ergonomics, Vol. 38, No. 11, pp. 2155-2163.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Papastavrou, J. (1993)."Models of the Warning Process: Important Implications Towards Effectiveness," Safety Science, Vol. 16, pp. 569-595.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992). "History of Warnings Effectiveness," Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Miller, J.M. with Frantz, J.P. (1993). "Communicating a Safety-Critical Limitation of an Infant Carrying Product: The Effect of Product Design and Warning Salience," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol. 11, pp. 1-12.
  • Miller, J.M., with Frantz, J.P. and Main, B.W. (1993). "The Ability of Two Lay Groups to Judge Product Warning Effectiveness," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA. pp. 989-993.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1993). Safety Decision-Making: Two Case Studies, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, September, 1993.
  • Miller, J.M. with Frantz, J.P. (1992). "The Effect of Product Design and Warning Salience on the Perception of Safety-Critical Product Attributes: A Case Study in Infant Carriers," S. Kumar (Ed.), Advances in Industrial Ergonomics & Safety IV pp. 569-576. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Miller, J.M. (1988). "The Effectiveness of Product Warning Labels," Journal of Products Liability, Vol. II, pp. 225-270.
  • Miller, J.M. with Frantz, J.P. and Lehto, M.R. (1991). "Must the Context be Considered When Applying Generic Safety Symbols?: A Case Study in Flammable Contact Adhesives," Journal of Safety Research, 22, pp. 147-161.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Miller, J.M. (1988). "The Effectiveness of Warning Labels," Personal Injury Review 1988, New York: Matthew Bender Press.


Product Labels, Packaging and Instruction Communication

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  • Miller, J.M. (2007). "Hazard Communication Compliance", in Safety Engineering Handbook, American Society of Safety Engineers.
  • Clark, D.R. (1993, 1992). Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging, Continuing Engineering Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, July 21-23, 1993 and July 15-17, 1992.
  • Miller, J.M. (1992). "Introduction to Product Information Methods," Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Miller, J.M., Frantz, J.P. and Rhoades, T.P. (1991), "A Model for Developing and Evaluating Product Information," Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting pp. 1063-1067, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.
  • Miller, J.M. with Rhoades, T.P., Frantz, J.P. (1990). "Emerging Methodologies for the Assessment of Safety Related Product Communications," Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting, pp. 998-1002, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Warnings Design & Modeling

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  • Lehto, M.R. (2006). “Optimal Warnings: An Information and Decision Theoretic Perspective,” Chapter 7 in Handbook of Warnings, Wogalter, M. S. (ed), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, pp. 89-108.
  • Lehto, M.R. (2000), “Determining Warning Label Content and Format Using EMEA, IEA 2000/HFES 2000, 14th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association & 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, CA, July 30-August 4, 2000
  • Lehto, M.R. and Clark, D.R. (2000). "Warning Signs and Labels,” in International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors, Karwowski, W. (co-ed), Taylor and Francis.
  • Zhu, W. and Lehto, M.R. (1999). "Decision Support for Indexing and Retrieval of Information for Hypertext Systems," International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 349-371.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1999). “Guidelines for Designing Warning Signs and Warning Labels,” in Industrial & Occupational Ergonomics: User’s Encyclopedia, Moh Ayoub, M., Kumar, S., Landau, K.and Wang, L. (eds).
  • Lehto, M.R., Clark, D.R., and Benysh, S.A.H. (1999). "Design of Industrial Warnings,” in The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Chapter 40 in The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Karwowski, W. and Marras, W.S. (eds), CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 707-740.
  • Lehto, M.R., Frantz, J.P., and Rhoades, T.P. (1999). “Practical Considerations Regarding the Design and Evaluation of Product Warnings,” Chapter 13 in Warnings and Risk Communication, Wogalter, M.S., DeJoy, D.M., and Laughery, K. (eds), Taylor and Francis, pp. 291-312.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Papastavrou, J.D. (1998). "A Signal-Detection Theory Based Perspective on Design of Warning," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 86, pp. 720-722.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1996). "Designing Warning Signs and Labels: A Theoretical/Scientific Framework" Journal of Consumer Safety, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 205-216.
  • Lehto, M.R.(1995). Designing Warnings: A Theoretical/Scientific Framework, invited presentation, European Consumer Safety Association (ECOSA) Safety Labeling Conference, Paris, France, November 9-10, 1995.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992). Cognitive Guidelines for Warnings Design, Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992), "Designing Warning Signs and Warning Labels: Part I-Guidelines for the Practitioner," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol. 10, pp. 105-113.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992), "Designing Warning Signs and Warning Labels: Part II-Scientific Basis for Initial Guidelines," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol 10, pp. 115-138.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992). Using Hypertext for Providing Warnings Information, Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Miller, J.M. (1992). "ANSI Manual Guidelines." Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Miller, J.M. (1992). "Canadian/European Warnings Development," Presented at the University of Michigan Engineering Summer Conference, Ann Arbor, MI. Course: Warnings, Labels and Product Packaging: Design and Compliance.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1992). Warnings and Informed Choice: A Decision-Analytic View, Invited Lecture, Association of American Law Schools Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, January 3-7, 1992.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1991). "A Proposed Conceptual Model of Human Behavior and its Implications for the Design of Product Warnings," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 73, pp. 595-611.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1991). "Designing Warning Signs and Labels," First International Invited Symposium on Ergonomic Guidelines and Problem Solving, Kilbom, A. and Mital, A. (co-organizers), Lake Tahoe, NV, June 10-11.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1991). Designing Warning Signs and Labels, Invited Lecture, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI, November 1, 1991.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Papastavrou, J.D. (1990). "A Distributed Signal Detection Theory Model: Implications to the Design of Warnings," Proceedings of the 1991 Automatic Control Conference, Boston, MA, pp. 2586-2590.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1989). Simulation in the Evaluation of Warnings and Safety Instructions, Invited Lecture, Simulation for Safety at Work, an educational workshop organized by the Nordic Institute for Advanced Training in Occupational Health (NIVA), Turku, Finland, June 12-16.
  • Clark, D.R. (1988). Model for the Analysis, Representation and Synthesis of Hazard Warning Communications (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Michigan.
  • Miller, J.M. and Lehto, M.R. (1987, October). "Predicting Warnings-Induced Behavior Changes," Proceedings of the 31st Annual Human Factors Society Meeting, New York.

Books & Dissertations on Warnings

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  • Miller, J.M. (2007). "Hazard Communication Compliance", in Safety Engineering Handbook, American Society of Safety Engineers.
  • Lehto, M.R. (2006). “Optimal Warnings: An Information and Decision Theoretic Perspective,” Chapter 7 in Handbook of Warnings, Wogalter, M. S. (ed), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, pp. 89-108.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Clark, D.R. (2000). "Warning Signs and Labels,” in International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors, Karwowski, W. (co-ed), Taylor and Francis.
  • Lehto, M.R., Frantz, J.P., and Rhoades, T.P. (1999). “Practical Considerations Regarding the Design and Evaluation of Product Warnings,” Chapter 13 in Warnings and Risk Communication, Wogalter, M.S., DeJoy, D.M., and Laughery, K. (eds), Taylor and Francis, pp. 291-312.
  • Lehto, M.R., Clark, D.R., and Benysh, S.A.H. (1999). "Design of Industrial Warnings,” in The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Chapter 40 in The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Karwowski, W. and Marras, W.S. (eds), CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 707-740.
  • Lehto, M.R. (1999). “Guidelines for Designing Warning Signs and Warning Labels,” in Industrial & Occupational Ergonomics: User’s Encyclopedia, Moh Ayoub, M., Kumar, S., Landau, K.and Wang, L. (eds).
  • Miller, J.M., Lehto, M.R. and Frantz, J.P. (November, 1994). Warnings and Safety Instructions: Annotated and Indexed, Ann Arbor, MI: Fuller Technical Publications.
  • Miller, J.M., Lehto, M.R. and Frantz, J.P. (1990). Instructions and Warnings: The Annotated Bibliography, Ann Arbor, MI: Fuller Technical Publications.
  • Clark, D.R. (1988). Model for the Analysis, Representation and Synthesis of Hazard Warning Communications (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Michigan.
  • Miller, J.M. and Lehto, M.R. (1987). Warnings: Volume 2: An Annotated Bibliography, Ann Arbor, MI: Fuller Technical Publishing.
  • Lehto, M.R. and Miller, J.M. (1986). Warnings: Volume 1: Fundamentals, Design and Evaluation Methodologies, Ann Arbor, MI: Fuller Technical Publishing.
  • Lehto, M.R., Weiss, S.W., Boggs, G., Shodja, S. and Martin, D.J.(1982). "Computer System Response Time and Psychophysiological Stress II," Proceedings of the Human Factors Society - 26th Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, October 25-29, 1982, pp. 698-702.
  • Lehto, M.R., Boggs, G.J., Weiss, S.W., and Salvendy, G. (1982). "Computer System Response Time and Psychophysical Stress," IEEE Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Seattle, WA, October 28-30, 1982, pp. 40-44.
  • Miller, J.M. (1965). Capacity Concept for Improved Production Management Decision Making. Copyrighted Masters Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
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